The Impact of Leadership to Job Satisfaction and Job Performance – An Empirical Study in the Taiwanese Gaming Machine Manufacture Industry Employees

  • Shun-Hsing Chen Department of Marketing & Distribution Management, Oriental Institute of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C.
  • An-Chi Liu Department of Marketing & Distribution Management, Oriental Institute of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Keywords: Gaming Industry, Social Support, Leadership, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance.


This study is to explore the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction, and job performance in a gaming machine manufacture with social support as moderating variable which is to test whether there is moderating effect causing by social support between leadership and job satisfaction. This study subject is 125 employees from gaming machine manufacture in Taiwan. The results reveal that leadership has significant positive impact on job satisfaction; job satisfaction has significant positive impact on job performance and social support has no moderating effect between leadership and job satisfaction. 


Download data is not yet available.


Baker, L., O’Brien, K., & Salahuddin, N. (2007). Are shelter workers burned out? : An examination of stress, social support, and coping. Journal of Family Violence, Vol. 22, No.6, pp.465-474.

Baruah, P. & Barthakur, B. J. (2012). Employees' Attitude: Performance and Satisfaction. SCMS Journal of Indian Management. Vol. 9, No.3, 30-42.

Bass, B. M. & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving Organization Effectivenessthrough Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oak, California: Sage Publication.

Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge, NY: Harper & Row.

Blumberg, M. & Pringle, C.D. (1982). The Missing Opportunity in Organizational Research: Some Implications for a Theory of Work Performance. Academy of management Review, Vol. 7, pp.560-569.

Brwon, G. W. (1974). Meaning measurement and stress of life events. In Dohrenwend, B. P. & Dohrenwend, B. S. (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects. John Wiley, New York, 313-332.

Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and Leadership in Organization, London: SAGE Publication.

Byars, L.L. and Rue, L.W. (1984). Human Resource and Personnel Management. Homewood, Editions 4L, Irwin.

Caplan, G. (1974). Support system and community mental health: Lecture on concept development. New York: Basic Books. Overtime American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, Vol. 47, No.4, pp.568-576.

Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the Performance Prediction Problem in Industrial and Organizational Psychology. In Dunnette, M. D. & Hough, L. M. (Eds.).

Chan, S.C.H. and Mak, W. (2014). The impact of servant leadership and subordinates' organizational tenure on trust in leader and attitudes. Personnel Review, Vol. 43, No.2, pp.272-287.

Chen, Z., Sun, H., Lam, W., Hu, Q., Huo, Y. & Zhong, J. (2012). Chinese hotel employees in the smiling masks: roles of job satisfaction, burnout, and supervisory support in relationships between emotional labor and performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 23, No.3, pp.826-845.

Cohen, S. & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 98, No.21, pp.310-357.

Cullen, K., Edwards, B., Casper, W. & Gue, K. (2014). Employees' Adaptability and Perceptions of Change-Related Uncertainty: Implications for Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, and Performance. Journal of Business & Psychology, Vol. 29, No.2, pp. 269-280.

Cutronal, C. E. (1996). Social support in couples: Marriage as a resource in times of stress. Thousand Oaks, C.A.: SAGE publication.

Davis, R. C. (1951). The Fundamental of Top Management. N. Y.: Happer & Row, 522.

Fielder, F. (1967). A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Fournet, G. P., Distefano, M. K. Jr. & Pryer, M. W. (1966). Job Satisfaction: Issues and Problems. Personnel Psychology, Vol. 19, No.2, pp.165-184.

Kinmana, G., Wrayb, S. & Strangea, C. (2011). Emotional labour, burnout and job satisfaction in UK teachers: the role of workplace social support. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, Vol. 31, No.7, pp.843-856.

Gaming Inspection and Coordination Bureau Macao SAR (2014). From

Gatewood, R. D. & Field, H. S. (1998). Human Resource Selection. The Dryden Press, Texas.

Gunavathy, J. S. & Ayswarya, R. (2011). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction as correlates of job performance-a study among women employed in the Indian software industry. Paradigm (Institute of Management Technology), Vol. 15, No. 1/2, pp. 58-65.

Guralnick, M. J., Hammond, M. A., Neville, B. & Connor, R. T. (2008). The relationship between sources and functions of social support and dimensions of child-and parent-related stress. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, Vol. 53, No.12, pp. 1138-1154.

Roger, H., Schlesinger L. A. & Zornitsky, J. (1996). International Service Quality, Customer and Job Satisfaction: Linkages and Implications for Management. Human Recourse Planning, Vol. 19, No.2, pp. 20-31.

Halpin, A. W. & Winer, B.J. (1957). A Factorial Study of the Leader Behavior Descriptions. In Stogdill, R.M. & Coons, A.E. (Eds.) Leader Behavior: Its Descriptions and Measurement. Columbus: Ohio State.

House, J.S. (1985). Stress and Social System. California, Addison Wesley publishing company.

House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

House, R. J. (1971). A Path-Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 16, No.3, pp.321-328.

House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership. In Hunt, J. G. (Eds.), Leadership: The Cutting Edge, Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Hoppock, R. (1935). Job Satisfaction. Harper, New York.

Hunt, J. G., Baliga, B. R. & Dachler, H. P. (1988). Schriesheim, C. A. (Eds.), Emerging leadership vistas, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA, 125-149.

Jamal, M. (2013). Job Stress among Hospital Employees in Middle East: Social Support and Type A Behavior as Moderators. Middle East Journal of Business, Vol. 8, No.3, pp.7-16.

Katz, D. & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The Social Psychology of Organization. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Bernhardt, K. L., Donthu, N., Kennett, P. A. (2000). A Longitudinal Analysis of Satisfaction and Profitability. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 47, No.2, pp.161-171.

Korman, A.K. (1977). Organization Behavior. Engiewoods, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Krush, M. T., Krishnakumar, S., Agnihotri, R., Trainor, K. J. (2013). The Salesperson’s ability to bounce back: examining the moderating role of resiliency on forms of intra-role job conflict and job attitudes, behaviors and performance. Marketing Management Journal, Vol. 23, No.1, pp.42-56.

Lawrence, S. A. & Callan, V. J. (2011). The Role of Social Support in Coping during the Anticipatory Stage of Organizational Change: A Test of an Integrative Model. British Journal of Management, Vol. 22, No.4, pp.567-585.

Lee, Y. D., Lain, J. W. & Chen, C. Y. (1999). A Study on the Measurement of Productivity for White-Collar Employees-A Case of Electronic Industry in Taiwan. The Chinese Military Academy Journal, pp.345-361.

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R. & White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimental created social cremates. Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 10, pp.271-299.

Likert, R. (1961). New Pattern of Management, New York: McGraw Hill.

Likert, R. (1967). The Human Organization, New York: McGraw Hill.

Lin, L., Tseng, C. (2013). The influence of leadership behavior and psychological empowerment on job satisfaction. International Journal of Organizational Innovation, Vol. 5, No .4, pp. 21-29.

Men, L. R. (2014). Strategic Internal Communication: Transformational Leadership, Communication Channels, and Employee Satisfaction. Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 28, No.2, pp. 264-284.

Fergusona, M., Carlsonb, D., Aivnuskac, S. & Whittend, D. (2012). Support at work and home: The path to satisfaction through balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 80, No.2, pp.299-307.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, Vol. 1, No.2, pp.107–142.

Robbins, S. P. (1996). Organization Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey Prentice-Hall International Inc.

Robbins, S. P. (1998). Organizational Behavior, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International Inc.

[Robbins, S. P. (2001), Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversies, and Applications, Prentice Hall, New York.

Rothfelder, K., Ottenbacher, M. & Harrington, R. J. (2013). The impact of transformational, transactional and non-leadership styles on employee job satisfaction in the German hospitality industry. Tourism & Hospitality Research, Vol. 12, No.4, pp.201-214.

Sarason, I. G., Levine, H. M., Basham, R.B., & Sarason, B. R. (1983). Assessing social support: The social support questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 44, No.1, pp.127-139.

Seashore, S. E. & Taber, T. D. (1975). Job Satisfaction and Their Correlation. American Behavior & Scientist, Vol. 18, pp.333-368.

Shibru, B. & Darshan, G. M. (2011). Effects of transformational leadership on subordinate job satisfaction in leather companies in Ethiopia. International Journal of Business Management & Economic Research, Vol. 3, No.5, pp.284-296.

Siu, A. M., Lam, A. Y., Hung, A., Cheng, A. (2013). Work limitations, workplace concerns, and job satisfaction of persons with chronic disease. Work, Vol. 45, No.1, pp.107-115.

Sloan, M. M. (2012). Unfair Treatment in the Workplace and Worker Well-Being: The Role of Coworker Support in a Service Work Environment. Work & Occupations, Vol. 39, No.1, pp.3-34.

Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M. & Hulin, C. L. (1969). Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement. Bureau of Business Research, 88, Columbus, Ohio State University.

Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Literature, New York: Free Press.

Tannenbaum, R. & Schmidt, W. H. (1958). How to Choose a Leadership Pattern. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 36, pp.95-101.

Thoits, P. A. (1986). Social support as an assistance. Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology, Vol. 54, No.4, pp.416-423.

Thomas, C. H. & Lankau, M. J. (2009). Preventing burnout: the effects of LMX and mentoring on socialization, role stress, and burnout. Human Resource Management, Vol. 48, No.3, pp.417-432.

Venkatraman, N. (1986). Measurement of Business Performance in Strategy Research:A Comparison of Approaches. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 11, pp.801-804.

Weiss, D. J., Dawis R. V., England G. W. & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Yi, G. M., Jung, H. S., Yi, Y., Hyun, H. J. & Kim, H.G. (2009). The Influence of Social Support on Job Satisfaction of Migrant Workers. Korean J Occup Health Nurs, Vol. 18, No.2, pp.165-173.

Ziegle, R., Hagen, B. & Diehl, M. (2012). Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: Job Ambivalence as a Moderator. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No.8, pp.2019-2040.

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N.W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 52, pp.30-41.

How to Cite
Chen, S.-H., & Liu, A.-C. (2017). The Impact of Leadership to Job Satisfaction and Job Performance – An Empirical Study in the Taiwanese Gaming Machine Manufacture Industry Employees. Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management, 8(7), 1626-1635. Retrieved from