Self-Efficacy and Self-Independence in Promoting Self-Employment Intention among University Students

  • Ramraini Ali Hassan Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Mimi Zarina Bakri Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Keywords: Self-efficacy, self-independence, self-employment intention.


The purpose of this study is to examine the role of self-efficacy and self-independence in promoting self-employment intention among university students. This study is developed based on entrepreneurial intention described by Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991) and Shapero and Sokol (1982). Although the evidence showed that one-third of new entrepreneurs in the United States were those individuals with the ages of 30 and below (Kuratko, 2005) butstill not all graduate students are willing to choose entrepreneurship as their career. There are still a limited number of students who are willing to start a business soon after they graduate from the university (Hisrich and Peters, 2002). Therefore, it is the aim of this study to investigate both roles of self-efficacy and self-independence in influencing the decision to choose self-employment as a career among university students. The respondents for this study were university students in Sabah, Malaysia. 400 questionnaires were distributed in this study resulting only in 260 usable questionnaires. Based on the results of this study, it was found that both self-efficacy and self-independence have a significant relationship with self-employment intention. This study, therefore, through its research and findings has contributed significantly to both theoretical and practical implications. This study is able to provide the information on the factors that determine self-employment career among university graduates.


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How to Cite
Ali Hassan, R., & Bakri, M. Z. (2016). Self-Efficacy and Self-Independence in Promoting Self-Employment Intention among University Students. Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management, 6(2), 888-893. Retrieved from