Hiding Information- A Survey

  • Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
  • Subhojit Malik Hooghly Engineering & Technology College, Vivekananda Road, Pipulpati. P.O. & Dist.-Hooghly. West Bengal
  • Writi Mitra Hooghly Engineering & Technology College, Vivekananda Road, Pipulpati. P.O. & Dist.-Hooghly. West Bengal


Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image audio, and video files. It comes under the assumption that if the feature is visible, the point of attack is evident, thus the goal here is always to conceal the very existence of the embedded data. In comparison with Analog media, Digital media offers several distinctadvantages such as high quality, easy editing, high fidelity copying, compression etcIn order to address this Information Security,Steganography plays an important role. Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messagesin such a way that no one apart from the sender and intended recipient even realizes there is a hiddenmessage. This paper is a tutorial review of the steganography techniques appeared in the literature.

Author Biographies

Subhojit Malik, Hooghly Engineering & Technology College, Vivekananda Road, Pipulpati. P.O. & Dist.-Hooghly. West Bengal
Assistant Professor, ECE Department
Writi Mitra, Hooghly Engineering & Technology College, Vivekananda Road, Pipulpati. P.O. & Dist.-Hooghly. West Bengal
Assistant Professor, ECE Department


N.F. Johnson and S. Jajodia, Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen, IEEE Computer, 31(2)(1998) 26-34.

J.C. Judge, Steganography: Past, present, future. SANS Institute publication, http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/stenganography/552.php, 2001.

N. Provos and P. Honeyman, Hide and seek: An introduction to steganography, IEEE Security and Privacy, 01 (3)(2003)32-44.

P. Moulin and R. Koetter, Data-hiding codes, Proceedings of the IEEE, 93 (12)(2005)2083-2126.

S.B. Sadkhan, Cryptography: Current status and future trends, in: Proceedings of IEEE InternationalConference on Information & Communication Technologies: From Theory to Applications, Damascus.Syria, April 19-23, 2004, pp. 417-418.

S. Lyu and H. Farid, steganalysis using higher-order image statistics, IEEE Transactions on InformationForensics and Security, 1(1)(2006) 111-119.

D. Kahn, The Codebreakers: The comprehensive history of secret communication from ancient times to theInternet, Scribner, December 5, 1996.

J.P. Delahaye, Information noye, information cache, Pour la Science, 229(1996)142-146.

www.apprendre-en-ligne.net/crypto/stegano/229_142_146.pdf. [in French].

G.J. Simmons, The prisoners problem and the subliminal channel, in: Proceedings of Internationalconference on Advances in Cryptology, CRYPTO83, August 22-24, 1984, pp. 51-67.

C. Kurak and J. McHugh, A cautionary note on image downgrading, in: Proceedings of the IEEE 8th AnnualComputer Security Applications Conference, 30 Nov-4 Dec, 1992, pp. 153-159.

T.L. Thomas, Al Qaeda and the Internet: The danger of cyberplanning, Parameters, US Army WarCollege Quarterly-Spring 2003. Available from:www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/03spring/thomas.pdf.

C. Hosmer, Discovering hidden evidence, Journal of Digital Forensic Practice, (1)(2006)47-56.

J.C. Hernandez-Castro, I. Blasco-Lopez and J.M. Estevez-Tapiador, Steganography in games: A generalmethodology and its application to the game of Go, Computers and Security, Elsevier Science, 25(2006) 64-71.

P. Hayati, V. Potdar, E. Chang, A survey of steganographic and steganalytic tools for the digital forensicinvestigator, available from:


W. Bender, W. Butera, D. Gruhl, R. Hwang, F.J. Paiz and S. Pogreb, Applications for data hiding, IBMSystems Journal, 39 (3&4)(2000) 547-568.

F.A.P. Petitcolas, Introduction to information hiding, in: S. Katzenbeisser and F.A.P. Petitcolas, (ed.)(2000) Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking, Norwood: Artech House,INC.

S. Miaou, C. Hsu, Y. Tsai and H. Chao, A secure data hiding technique with heterogeneous data-combiningcapability for electronic patient records, in: Proceedings of the IEEE 22nd Annual EMBS InternationalConference, July 23-28, 2000, Chicago, USA, pp. 280-283.

U.C. Nirinjan and D. Anand, Watermarking medical images with patient information, in: Proceedings of the20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, HongKong, China, 29 Oct-1 Nov, 1998, pp. 703-706.

Y. Li, C. Li and C. Wei, Protection of mammograms using blind steganography and watermarking, in:Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Information Assurance and Security, 2007, pp. 496-499.

D. Frith, Steganography approaches, options, and implications, Network Security, 2007(8)(2007)4-7.

H. Farid, A Survey of image forgery detection, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 26(2)(2009)16-25.

A. Cheddad, J. Condell, K. Curran and P. Mc Kevitt, A secure and improved self-embedding algorithm tocombat digital document forgery, Signal Processing, 89 (12)(2009)2324-2332.

N.F. Johnson and S.C. Katzenbeisser, A survey of steganographic techniques, in: S. Katzenbeisser andF.A.P. Petitcolas, (ed.) (2000) Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking,Norwood: Artech House, INC.

K. Bailey and K. Curran, An evaluation of image based steganography methods, Multimedia Tools andApplications, 30 (1)(2006) 55-88.

[Hide and Seek]:


[S-Tools]: ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/crypt/mirrors/idea.sec.dsi.unimi.it/code/s-tools4.zip

[Stella] :http://wwwicg.informatik.uni-rostock.de/~sanction/stella/

[Hide in Picture]: http://sourceforge.net/projects/hide-in-picture/

[Revelation]: http://revelation.atspace.biz/

[Camouflage]: http://camouflage.unfiction.com/

[JpegX]: http://www.freewarefiles.com/Jpegx_program_19392.html

[Data Stash]: http://www.skyjuicesoftware.com/software/ds_info.html

[Other Tools]: http://www.jjtc.com/Security/stegtools.htm

[F5]: http://wwwrn.inf.tu-dresden.de/~westfeld/f5.html

[OutGuess]: http://www.outguess.org/

P. Alvarez, Using extended file information (EXIF) file headers in digital evidence analysis, InternationalJournal of Digital Evidence, Economic Crime Institute (ECI), 2(3)(2004)1-5.

V.M. Potdar, S. Han and E. Chang, Fingerprinted secret sharing steganography for robustness against imagecropping attacks, in: Proceedings of IEEE 3rd International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN),Perth, Australia, 10-12 August 2005, pp. 717-724.

M.H. Shirali-Shahreza and M. Shirali-Shahreza, A new approach to Persian/Arabic text steganography, in:Proceedings of 5th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICISCOMSAR2006), 10-12 July 2006, pp. 310-315.

E.T. Lin and E.J. Delp, A review of data hiding in digital images, in: Proceedings of the Image Processing,Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conference, PICS99, the Society for Imaging Science andTechnology, 1999, pp. 274-278.

C.C. Chang, C.Y. Lin and Y.Z. Wang, New image steganographic methods using run-length Approach,Information Sciences, 176 (22)(2006) 3393-3408.

R.J. Hwang, K.T. Shih, C.H. Kao and T.M. Chang, Lossy compression tolerant steganography, in: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on The Human Society and the Internet-Internet RelatedSocio-Economic Issues, Lecture Notes In Computer Science, 2001, vol. 2105, pp. 427-435.

X. Kong, Z. Wang and X. You, steganalysis of palette images: Attack optimal parity assignment algorithm,in: Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Information, Communications and SignalProcessing, 06-09 Dec 2005, pp. 860-864.

J. Fridrich, M. Goljan and D. Hogeg, steganalysis of JPEG images: Breaking the F5 algorithm, in: Proceedings of Information Hiding: 5th International Workshop, IH 2002 Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, LNCS, Springer, October 7-9, 2002, 2578/2003, pp. 310-323.

How to Cite
Bandyopadhyay, S., Malik, S., & Mitra, W. (2015). Hiding Information- A Survey. Journal of Information Sciences and Computing Technologies, 3(3), 232-240. Retrieved from http://scitecresearch.com/journals/index.php/jisct/article/view/135